Professor Liecke Sanders (The Netherlands) speaks about a large vaccination trial recently conducted in The Netherlands, which consisted in administering the 13-valent vaccine (pcv13) to 85.000 older adults. The trial showed that there was a clear reduction of PNC pneumonia, even though the overall reduction of general pneumonia was of 5%. Different scenarios are now possible fot the elderly. The option are now: vaccinating the elderly with the 13-valent vaccine because it showed some benefit; on the other hand 10 out of the 13 serotypes are not circulating much because of the heard immunity; second option is giving the elderly the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine, but there's no proof of the overall impact of this vaccine; last option is giving children the 13-valent vaccine instead of the 10-valent one. This debate is currently going on in different countries and the outcome will be interesting!