According to data of 2014, in the US the rate of immunization coverage for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis reaches 94.7% for 3 doses; measles and rubella, 91.5%; for influenza, 93.3%; for hepatitis B, 91.6% for 3 doses; for chickenpox, 91% for 3 doses; for pneumococcus, 92.6%.
European Guidelines on vaccination in adults and elderly are the result of a long work made by a team of international experts and a key instrument to reduce diseases and extend life. In Italy and Europe we are witness of a rapid population ageing characterized by greater vulnerability due to the weakening of immune system. We recommend vaccinations to protect adults and elderly from diseases such as influenza, pneumococcal infections, pertussis and herpes zoster.
We saw the emergence, in the last decade, of new infections transmitted by mosquitoes. In particular, at the moment we see an outbreak of spread of Zika virus, but mosquitoes transmit also Chikungunya and Dengue. These are the three viruses now spreading in South and Central America, but these mosquitoes are also in Mediterranean areas.
The major outbreaks in Asia in 2015/6 focused on three viruses: the influenza virus, the MERS coronavirus and the dengue virus. For the influenza virus, in the 2014/5-winter season resulted in excess of 500 deaths in Hong Kong. The avian influenza A (H7N9) caused 93 deaths. Thirty-three A (H7N9) cases have been reported in 2016.
Migliori Globally, TB is still a pandemic of primary importance, with 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 deaths in the world each year. In addition, there is an emergence of resistant forms; according to the WHO, it is estimated that in 2014 in the world have occurred 480,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).
In the United States, after a drug is approved and marketed, the U.S. FDA uses different mechanisms to assure that manufacturing firms adhere to the terms and conditions of approval described in the drug application, and that the drug is manufactured in a consistent and controlled manner.
In children medicines are often used off-label leading to the risk of reduced efficacy and unknown safety profile. Off label and/or unauthorised use is most common in neonates and infants and in hospital settings. We aim to reduce off-label use and thus improve efficacy and safety of medicines in children in Europe.
Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which the immune system damages normal components of the individual. They were found to be multifactorial in their etiology. For practical reasons these factors are classified into four categories: Genetic; Immune deficiencies; Hormonal state; Environmental causes.